Nanodiamond as Advanced Blood Substitutes as Oxygen Therapy
Jia-Chi Chang (張家奇)1*, Yu-Chung Lin(林于衆)1,2, Lin-Wei Tsai(蔡令緯)1, Ying-Siou Ye(葉映秀)1, Zhe-Rui Lin(林哲睿)1, Elena Perevedentseva1, Chia-Liang Cheng(鄭嘉良)1
1Department of Physics, National Dong Hwa University, Hualien, Taiwan
2Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan
* presenting author:Jia-Chi Chang,
The vital function and the sacred nature of blood have received numerous studies since the beginning of modern science. With the increasing needs for blood supplies, the development of blood substitutes remains an urgent but challenging task. The needs in artificial blood is determined by such factors as limited number of donors; clinical problems of RBC transfusion, e.g. the requirement for cross-matching and problem of blood compatibility, the risks of transmission of diseases (e.g. human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus (HCV)), which is decreased with significant increasing of the blood transfusion cost, the storage limitations of liquid RBCs. Human factors, like human errors, cultural and religious objections recently also have to be considered [1].
Nanodiamond (ND) has shown great potential for bio and medical applications owing to its physical-chemical properties and biocompatibility [2, 3]. Various surface functionalization methods have been developed. These render the possibility of grafting biomolecules, includes human blood proteins, on ND surface [4]. The blood proteins adsorbed on ND form stable complex suitable for medical applications. We have earlier demonstrated ND does not alter the oxygen delivery properties of red blood cells [5, 6]. This may provide a possible scheme for blood substitutes and use it for oxygen therapeutics.
In this project, we study to use ND as hemoglobin-based artificial blood substitute. Blood proteins are adsorbed on ND surface to form ND-Protein complexes. We study the interaction of ND with blood proteins, such as hemoglobin (Hb). The surface protein loading was analyzed using UV-Visible spectroscopy. FTIR spectroscopy, ζ-potential measurements and dynamic light scattering were applied to access the structural changes of the proteins. The FTIR absorbance spectra revealed strong adsorption of proteins on ND surface, but only non-significant transformations of the proteins conformation have been observed. The oxygenation state of Hb in ND-Hb complex was examined using UV-Visible and Raman spectroscopy, and compared with human red blood cell on the behavior of the oxygen delivery ability of the artificial blood. In oxygen therapy study, we use normal cell and cancer cell for cell viability test, the results show the ND as hemoglobin-based artificial blood substitute can be an oxygen carrier and inhibit the cancer cells grown and do not influence normal cells.

Keywords: nanodiamond, hemoglobin, artificial blood, oxygen therapy